Berkay Özcan Г is the diffusivity coefficient of each component in the mixture. oscillation frequencies) are neglected, the linear bubble growth rate can be reduced to: = ⍴ (5). г. - Снимайте жилье у людей из Kornwestheim, Германия от 1 ₽/сутки. Найдите уникальное жилье у местных хозяев в странах. Herzlich willkommen auf der Internetseite der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart! Hier finden Sie Informationen zu Kommunalpolitik und Dienstleistungen.
Г¶zcan Stuttgart Схожі пошукові запити для can VideoFresh F3-RES 2M Glider - Servo Install, Setup, \u0026 Balance, Pt11 Juni die CHIRON OPEN HOUSE Horn präsentiert die Boehlerit-Erweiterung des Frässystems ISO 90P. Thanks to the hybrid cutting geometry, the helical milling cutters are able to cover a broad range of Allerheiligen Feiertag Rlp. September Stand 5C81 die Schleifmaschine JUPITER S — eine Weiterentwicklung der JUPITER — vor. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. BOSCH CAN Specification Version , Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 50, D Stuttgart 1 Thi d t t d ith F M k 4 0 4. Grammar Exercise - Can or Can't - Learn. Comments. Transcription. 2. американский /р - REAL-EOD. Joerg Latus, Stuttgart, Germany SO MEDITERRANEAN DIET, KIDNEY FUNCTION, AND MORTALITY IN MEN WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE Xiaoyan Huang, Stockholm, Sweden SO SOLUBLE FLT-1 CONTRIBUTES TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN CKD Giovana Di Marco, MГјnster, Germany 32 beyerautosalvage.comaorg CONGRESS INFORMATION SO IDENTIFICATION OF SUBGROUPS AT HIGH. Based on the International Conference on Boundary Value Problems and lntegral Equations In Nonsmooth Domains held recently in Luminy, France, this work contains strongly interrelated, refereed papers that detail the latest findings in the fields of nonsmooth domains and corner singularities.
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Have your ever dreamt awake? What is before adverb, See more. The distance between the centers of the plugs is 12 m ; the inner diameter of the vacuum chamber is 1.
Thefieldstrength in the central part can be raised to gauss and the field in the plugs up to gauss. An experimental study has also been started on systems possessing thefieldgeometry shown in Fig.
This type of field is interesting in several respects. In particular, as mentioned above it is hoped that for some types of disturbances a higher degree of plasma stability will be attained.
Other types of traps. One may attempt to discover magnetic systems suitable for magnetic traps by applying a somewhat different method.
The main problem is to ascertain under what conditions the particles do not escape from a restricted space region as a result of drift in an inhomogeneous field.
A magnetic system which may be considered as illustrating one possible approach to this problem is represented in Fig. In this system the magnetic field along the straight sections is " corrugated " by a non-uniform winding on the chamber surface.
A particle moving in such an inhomogeneous field will be subjected to rotational drift and its trajectory will therefore turn about the axis of the field.
Thus, despite the presence of curvilinear crosspieces the particles should not approach the walls after a complete circuit, as rotation of the trajectories in the long linear parts should balance the effect of the directed drift in the crosspieces.
Experimental arrangement of magnetic trap experiment Plasma Plasma Region Region. It is easy to see that the system described above has the same defects as a trap with plugs.
It is capable of confining only particles whose velocity vectors lie within an allowed range of directions.
Any particle entering the curvilinear interval with a. However, in all probability further development of the principle mentioned above should lead to systems in which the escape cone will be so narrow that the properties of these systems will approach those of ideal traps.
The methods described above for obtaining magnetic traps are based on the application of constant or slowly varying magnetic fields.
Theoretical studies indicate broad possibilities of applying high-frequency electromagnetic fields for confinement and insulation of plasmas.
Here, the term " high frequencies " means that the oscillation period of the field is much smaller than the periods characteristic of the behavior of the plasma.
The respective frequencies ranged from tens of megacycles up. The plasma-confining force in this case is determined not by the instantaneous value of H but its mean-square-value.
Evidently, high frequency fields can be most effectively employed in conjunction with constant magnetic fields which perform the auxiliary task of eliminating energy losses due to corpuscular beams.
For example, high-frequency electromagnetic fields can be used as " plugs " which trap particles escaping. Magnetic trap with corrugated field in the straight sections to offset drift in the U-bends.
The possibility of confining plasmas by means of field combinations of this type was experimentally confirmed with a small-size device at the Institute of Atomic Energy.
Practically, the application of high-frequency fields for confinement of a heated plasma seems to be very unpromising because of the large amount of energy which will be required to maintain such fields.
Nevertheless investigation of various possibilities of high-frequency thermal insulation deserves close attention.
High-frequency electromagnetic fields may also be used to heat the plasma. In this respect a study of the potentialities of ion cyclotron resonance would be of special interest.
Investigations carried out in the USSR in this direction will be presented in a report from the Ukrainian Physico-Technical Institute.
In his speech at the First Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, the President of the Conference, Dr. Bhabha said: " The historical period we are just entering in which atomic energy released by the fission process will supply some of the power requirements of the world may well be regarded one day as the primitive period of the atomic age.
It is well known that atomic energy can be obtained by fusion process as in the H-bomb, and there is no basic scientific knowledge in our possession today to show that it is impossible for us to obtain this energy from the fusion process in a controlled manner.
The technical problems are formidable, but one should remember that it is not yet fifteen years since atomic energy was released in an atomic pile for the first time by Fermi.
I venture to predict that a method will be found for liberating fusion energy in a controlled manner within the next two decades. When that happens, the energy problems of the world will truly have been solved forever for the fuel will be as plentiful as the heavy hydrogen in the oceans.
This foundation has been laid by the numerous experimental and theoretical. For the first time these results will be discussed on an international scale, and this is probably the most important step which has been made towards the solution of this problem.
The importance of this fact is greater than that of the separate investigations, which as yet have not brought us very much nearer to our ultimate goal.
We do not wish to be pessimistic in appraising the future of our work, yet we must not underestimate the difficulties which will have to be overcome before we learn to master thermonuclear fusion.
In the long run, the main difficulty lies in the fact that in such a light substance as rarefied plasma, any manifestation of instability develops at an enormous rate.
The creation of an automatic monitor that could quickly damp various deviations from the equilibrium state is no simple task.
It would therefore seem that the most radical solution of this problem would be to create a system in which all types of instability are removed beforehand.
Returning now to a more general appraisal of the present state of affairs, it may be asserted that so far not a single one of the ideas regarding controlled fusion reactions is decisively superior to any other.
Therefore, investigations in the near future should be carried out in diverse directions. A most important factor in ensuring success in these investigations is the continuation and further development of the international cooperation initiated by our conference.
The solution of the problem of thermonuclear fusion will require a maximum concentration of intellectual effort and the mobilization of very appreciable material facilities and complex apparatus.
This problem seems to have been created especially for the purpose of developing close cooperation between the scientists and engineers of various countries, working at this problem according to a common plan, and continuously exchanging the results of their calculations, experiments and engineering developments.
The combining of efforts on an international scale in the field of controlled fusion reaction investigation will undoubtedly shorten the time needed for us to arrive at our ultimate goal.
Tamm, Theory of Magnetic Thermonuclear Reactors, Part I, AN SSSR, Fizika Plazmy i Problema Upravliaemykh Termoiadernikh Reaktsii, 1, 3, Moscow Sakharov, Theory of Magnetic Thermonuclear Reactors, Part II, loc.
Budker, Thermonuclear Reactions in Systems with Magnetic Plugs, loc. E Funfer et al Laboratorium fur techn Physik Techn Hochschule W Fucks and H L Jordan et al, Physikalisches Institut Techn Hochschule In the Stuttgart work,lf the corresponding values are 10, amp and K.
Those in Kiel, where special attention is given to transition probabilities, may be characterized as " experimental atrophysics " related to the physics of stellar atmospheres.
In the experiments in Hanover, the exploding wire technique has also been used; methods of measuring the temperature in the plasma column have been studied.
Toroidal Discharges. The present experiments in Gttingen are performed with a pyrex torus of cm major diameter and 4. The capacitor bank stores up to j when charged to 0.
A number of coils are distributed around the torus in order to provide a coaxial magnetic field up to 20, gauss. The temperature should be of the order of K.
Spectroscopic measurements and photographic and X-ray emission observations are being carried out. Experiments with larger toruses of cm bore and much larger energies are being prepared, but these can be made only after the transfer of the institute to Munich.
THEORY Basic Considerations. The Gttingen work originated in in connection with researches in theoretical astrophysics, in particular on astrophysical applications of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics and on the origin of cosmic radiation.
Given sufficient time, for temperatures around K and electron densities below cm-3, Tf W. Kluge, W. Pfender and K. Hcker, Institut fur Physik, Techn.
Bartels et al. Lochte-Holtgreven et al. Gierke et al, Max Planck Institut fr Physik. The results depend critically on the cross sections in question, for which the earlier work of Elwert 4 was used.
The time scale in which stationary conditions are approximately reached is of the order of a fraction of a millisecond for this temperature and an electron density of cm"3, but much shorter for higher temperatures.
The radiative energy losses by impurities of heavy elements in that temperature range are due mainly to the excitation of discrete levels. The results of the work of Knorr 5 are compatible with the more recent experiments with ZETA 7 if it is assumed that the electron temperature is much lower than the value of some K which apparently pertains to the ions.
The radiation losses due to impurities were found to be relatively large in the temperature range K even for small amounts of heavier elements.
The work on the equilibrium of dissociation and ionization and the energy losses of a high temperature discharge in pure hydrogen, begun by Schmidt and Stodiek, has been extended by Schmidt.
It is found that there are deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium, since the photo processes are not important because of the small optical thickness of a typical gas discharge.
Molecular recombination on the walls and the cooling of the neutral particles by impacts with the walls reinforce these deviations. The interactions of the charged particles with the wall, which might be important under certain conditions, have not been included in this discussion because of the assumption of strong magnetic fields.
The losses of energy by radiation and by the transport of the kinetic energy of neutral particles to the walls due to recombination and charge exchange have been estimated.
The maximum losses occur around 15,K. Methods of Heating. Three methods have been studied in some detail: Joule heating by means of azimuthal currents induced in the plasma ring; high frequency radiation, in particular near the eigenfrequencies of the plasma; and, finally, forced oscillations of the magnetic field.
The possibilities of the mechanism first mentioned have been discussed by Grossmann-Doerth,9 who. Heating by high frequency radiation, and in particular, the dependence of the refractive index on the parameters involved, has been investigated by Krper.
The third mechanism was recognized to be particularly effective if the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field is near to or larger than the collision frequency of the ions.
This heating effect is due to the constancy of the magnetic moment between collisions and to the redistribution of the energy by collisions "gyro-relaxation" ;11 it has been studied in some detail by numerical integrations,12 in which attrition was paid also to the energy losses of electrons.
The equations for gyro-relaxation given by Schlter have been integrated by Schmidt12 for a simple model taking into account the free-free radiation of the electrons.
Periodic variations of the magnetic field with a frequency of the order of the ion collision frequency lead to an increase of the temperature with the two-thirds power of the time.
Finally, one can reach temperatures of the order of K asymptotically if the amplitudes are large enough. Here the time scale for the increase is somewhat larger than the collision time of the final state.
Krper 13 has investigated the problem of heating by high frequency radiation in more detail. From the behavior of the refractive index it follows that one can use frequencies below the geometric mean of the gyro-frequency of the ions and the electrons.
The efficiency depends very critically on the phase of the oscillations of the plasma at the surface. Since the wave-length in the plasma is very small compared to the linear dimensions of a normal plasma cylinder, a small variation of the radius, of the frequency, or of the physical parameters will change the phase drastically.
Thus, averages over all phases have to be taken into account. The input impedance of the heating coils varies in the same manner with the physical parameters and therefore it is not possible to use the customary high frequency methods for matching the generator to the coil.
Variational methods are to be used to find the optimum matching. Configurations in Mag neto hydrostatic Equilibrium. The aim of these investigations is to find the properties of exact solutions, of appropriate general character, of the equation of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.
This equation expresses the exact balance of the gas pressure gradient or pressure difference by the magnetic volume or surface force given by the vector product of the electric current density and the magnetic field intensity.
The majority of those investigations pertain to the case of surface currents and to ring-shaped toroidal configurations of the plasma surrounded by a vacuum.
The special case of axial symmetry and circular cross section was discussed with potential theory methods in the properties of the solution with ex-.
Jrgens 15 extended the analysis to the more general case of non-circular meridianal cross section, using a stream function related to the magnetic flux, and indicated the locations of the singularities, outside the torus, which correspond to electric currents in exterior conductors.
Kippenhahn 16 established necessary and sufficient differential geometrical conditions for the surface of a plasma which must be fulfilled if the plasma is to be in equilibrium with a surrounding magnetic vacuum field and discussed, in particular, the case of azimuthdependent circular cross sections and currents spiralling around the torus surface.
In all these cases it was found that a component of the electric current parallel to the generating circle is necessary for equilibrium.
An attempt, made by Meyer and Schmidt,17 to prove this property to be true for still more general cases, revealed, however, that, in fact, solutions can be constructed, of torus-like geometry but with neither axial symmetry nor circular cross section, which are characterized by electric currents flowing everywhere with equal surface density along closed lines of meridianal character, but not in meridianal planes.
The cross section appears to have at least two maxima along the generating circle. If there are only a few maxima, the relative variation of the cross section along the generating circle appears to be fairly large; if, in contrast, there are many extrema, the surface must have a rippled structure at least on the " inner " side as seen from the centre of the aperture of the torus.
The magnetic lines of force, in this case, are everywhere perpendicular to the current if there is no magnetic field in the plasma. Axially symmetric solutions with volume currents have also been considered, using the stream-function method.
In addition to the analytic treatment by means of a special coordinate system, a simple model of the surface currents andfieldshas been constructed, using paper strips of suitable shapes, folded and joined together in a special way; this model is a true analogue to the physical situation for the case of vanishing magnetic field in the plasma, and it allows one to survey existing solutions and their general properties rather easily.
Stability Problems. In , general conditions for the stability of hydromagnetic configurations were investigated in Gttingen, by Hain, Lst and Schlter,20 on lines.
For the special case of cylindrical symmetry the stability of certain specific configurations has been treated by Hain et al.
More general cases for the current distributions and for the coaxial magnetic field are still being investigated. Since the emphasis in this work is to compare the properties of various current distributions, no regard is being taken of the possible stabilizing influence of external conductors.
The stability of a linear discharge in an exterior longitudinal magnetic field with surface currents has been investigated theoretically by Jordan22 in Aachen.
Of the work done by Hain, Lst and de Vries,21 a first paper by Hain and Lst 23 has been completed which contains the discussion of the more special case.
To study the problem of the so-called exchange stability, Meyer 24 has extended an investigation by Kruskal and Schwarzschild 34 in such a manner that a plasma with gravity and horizontal magnetic field is supported by a vacuum magnetic field, which is also horizontal but is skew to the inner one.
With the approximation used by Kruskal and Schwarzschild the unstable perturbations found by them can be stabilized. The stabilization depends on the angle between the two fields and on their relative strengths.
The calculations are extended to the case of large wave-length. It is shown that here unstable perturbations with very large wave-length exist for arbitrary angles and strengths of the magnetic field.
Particle Losses by Drift Motions. Since the macroscopic equations of plasma physics give information only on the net balance of mass, momentum and energy, their discussion must be supplemented by studying, from the microscopic point of view, the motion and, in particular, the containment of individual charged particles in suitable electromagnetic fields.
This can be done with the help of methods analogous to those developed earlier in connection with the theory of aurorae and of cosmic radiation.
For axially symmetric magnetic fields, Lst and Schlter25 derived an integral for the azimuthal component of the velocity which shows that this component depends only on the meridianal component of the magnetic field.
It may be seen, in addition, that it is not affected by a meridianal electric field as produced, e. Also, the influence of an azimuthal electric field as, e.
This leads by the energy integral to the existence of so-called forbidden regions which show that all particles within a certain range of initial conditions can, indeed, be contained in suchfieldswith a suitable.
For the simplest cases of toroidal symmetry, the structure of the forbidden regions and the geometrical properties of a number of individual trajectories have been studied by Fisser and Kippenhahn.
The magnitude of this drift has been calculated using the approximation method of Alfvn and by numerical solutions of the equations of motion.
A comparison of the results indicates the range of validity of the approximation. The constancy " adiabatic invariance " of the magnetic moment M or of the angular momentum of the gyrating motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field has been the subject of an investigation of Hertweck and Schlter,28 who established that, for a homogeneous field varying in time, the relative variation of M goes to zero at least exponentially with the rate of change of the magnetic field strength.
Fisser and Kippenhahn 26 have developed methods by which the properties of given trajectories in relation to the geometry of the allowed and the forbidden regions can be surveyed easily.
These methods can also be used to discuss problems of particle loss. The authors have applied these methods to the special case of the magnetic field of an ideal circular ring current.
Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves. In connection with the theory of controlled fusion, as well as in that of the acceleration of cosmic rays in cosmic magneticfields,the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves, in particular their thickness as compared to the kinetic mean path and the gyro-radius, is of importance.
For this reason, the special case of a stationary plane wave, propagating in the absence of collisions with unchanging form and speed perpendicular to a magnetic field, in a completely ionized gas plasma of " zero " temperature, has been investigated rigorously by Davis, Lst and Schlter.
The macroscopic equations for this case are identical with the microscopic ones and both ions and electrons have the same velocity U x and the same particle flux F in the direction of propagation x.
If one includes in the equations of motion the terms arising from the inertia of the current-carrying particles, one finds that B x is determined by the second order differential equation of a one-dimensional,.
Thus, the oscillatory character of the solutions is obvious, and the wave-length turns out to be of the order of the geometric mean of the gyro-radii of the ions and the electrons when moving with the velocity of the wave.
Numerical integration of the differential equation has been carried out for a systematic array of values of the parameters.
For the limiting case of an oscillatory wave train when the frequency goes to zero, one gets solitary waves with Mach numbers between 1 and 2.
In the complete absence of collisions, all particle trajectories are symmetrical about their extrema and no stationary shock waves can be found.
But if a few collisions are admitted, both the trajectories and the variation of with x become asymmetrical.
It appears that a shock will start with a wave that is almost a solitary wave followed by some kind of wave train, and that after the particles have travelled a distance of the order of a mean-free path there will be a fairly smooth flow of gas of higher temperature.
Thus the total shock thickness will be of the order of a few mean-free paths while its detailed structure should be related to the waves found here.
In the limit in which the time between collisions goes to infinity, the only solutions connecting regions of different properties must be non-stationary solutions; thus the stationary waves treated in this work are completely inadequate for the discussion of such cases.
The case of non-zero temperature, both with isotropic and non-isotropic pressure in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, has been studied by the same authors and Hain,32 using mainly the macro1J2.
For the first case, the results do not seem to differ essentially from those obtained for the case of zero pressure.
The second case is still being studied; for this, new equations have been derived by discussing suitable moments of the Boltzmann equation.
The investigations of Davis, Hain, Lst and Schluter 33 on the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves with non-zero pressure isotropic perpendicular but not parallel to the magnetic field have been completed.
The results are very similar to the case of zero pressure. To get shock waves, dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity, heat conduction, electrical resistivity and gyro-relaxation were taken into account.
A discussion showed that the last two are the most important mechanisms. The dissipation has the consequence that a solitary wave, which one obtains under certain initial conditions and which is symmetrical without dissipation, is somewhat asymmetrical.
This solitary wave is followed by a train of waves with decreasing amplitude until finally the homogeneous subsonic solution is reached.
The whole thickness of this region will be of the order of the mean-free path and may be very large compared to the thickness of the solitary wave.
That concludes my very incomplete and brief survey of the work that has been done, mainly in the last two years, in the Federal Republic of Germany.
You will have noticed that hitherto there has been very much duplication of effort, but I should like to say that I share very much the satisfaction that has been expressed by earlier speakers that now the period of duplication and non-communication has apparently come to an end and that international cooperation gives better promise for the future of physics.
Funfer, H Herold, G. Lehner, H Tuczek and C. Andelfinger, Neutronenemission stromstarker DeutenumEntladungen, Z Naturforsch. L Biermann and A.
Schluter, Zur Thorie quasistationarer thermonuklearer Prozesse, Z. Biermann, ber den Mechanismus der Ionisation in der Sonnenkorona , Naturwiss.
Elwert, ber die Ionisations- und Rekombmationsprozesse in einem Plasma und die Ionisations formel der Sonnenkorona, Z. Naturforsch, 7a, Knorr, ber den Ionisationszustand und die Ausstrahlung von Fremdgasen eines Wasserstoff-Plasmas, to appear in Z.
Schmidt and W. Stodiek, to appear in Z. Boose et al, Nature, , Schmidt, to appear m Z. Grossmann-Doerth, personal communication.
Korper, Schwingung eines Plasmazyhnders in einem ausseren Magnetfeld, Z. Naturforsch, 12a, Schluter, Der Gyro-Relaxahons-Effekt, Z.
Naturforsch , 72a, Abovc thcm arc thc lragmcnts ol thrcc horsc hcads, onc abovc thc othcr. Tcy strctch thcir right arms towards cach othcr. Mcnclaus hcad is almost complctcly dcstroycd.
Hclcn and Mcnclaus arc also shown in a rclicl lrom Aquincum, Pan nonia, and in two rclicls lrom Noricum, onc lrom swaldgrabcn, thc othcr lrom cmpctcr, Cclcia.
Similar iconog raphy is rcpcatcd in thc rclicl lrom swaldgrabcn, whilc on thc rclicl lrom cmpctcr, in addition to this mythological couplc, thcrc arc also a lcllow warrior ol Mcnclaus and a lcmalc gurc, most probably Aphroditc.
Tcsc rclicls dcpicting thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc show that such instanccs arc not numcrous and, also, that thcrc is not much iconographic variation.
Carclul analysis ol thc prcscrvcd lragmcnt ol thc rclicl lrom Pincum and its comparison with othcr Uppcr Mocsian monumcnts may provc usc lul in rcconstructing thc original appcarancc ol thc luncrary monumcnt thc rclicl lormcd part ol.
Tc rclicl showing Achillcs dragging Hcctors body was most probably placcd on thc soclc, givcn that thc marblc part bclow thc rclicl is coarscr, lacks nish and is narrowcr, which indicatcs that it was buricd in thc ground.
Tc prcscrvcd basc ol a scmicolumn abovc thc rclicl indicatcs that thc inscription cld was ankcd by scmicolumns. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art pcculiar to thcm.
Tc soclcs ol thcsc monumcnts bcar thc lollowing gural sccncs: augurs, hunting horscmcn, rapc ol uropa, and dolphins with a tridcnt.
Two monumcnts with thcir soclcs bcaring thc motil ol cantharos with vinc or a rc licl which is not clcarly lcgiblc today, which also havc thc inscription cld ankcd by scmicolumns abovc, arc not mcntioncd hcrc.
Cornclius Rulus, or thc rclicl with Hcraclcs and Alccstis, now built into thc lortrcss ol Smcdcrcvo. Minor iconographic dicrcnccs in thc iconography ol thcsc picccs with thc thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc, which arc not so numcrous, show that thc carvcr who cut thc Pincum rclicl most probably had bclorc him a pattcrnbook lrom!
Kondi, thc rclicl lrom Pin cum, as wcll as thc rclicl ol Hcraclcs and Alccstis, or thc rclicls on thc sidcs ol thc sarcophagi showing! All this supports thc as sumption that this rclicl, or thc monumcnt, should bc datcd to thc rst hall ol sccond ccntury, which is thc datc ol most ol thc monumcnts with this thcmatic rcpcrtoirc.
Tus such a lriczc was bcncath thc Rapc ol Pcrscphonc on thc stcla ol M. Alkcstis, no. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art Tc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pincum was discovcrcd along with an inscription, prcscrvcd only lragmcntarily and lost today.
Firstly, both lragmcnts wcrc madc ol thc samc matcrial. And nally, cvcn thc dimcnsions ol thc lrag mcnts may suggcst that thcy oncc lormcd part ol onc wholc.
Tc thickncss ol thc inscribcd lragmcnt was cm, and ol thc rclicl bctwccn and cm. Tc inscription, dcntcd on all lour sidcs, was o cm widc, and thc rclicl, damagcd only on onc sidc, is 8o cm widc.
Unlortunatcly, thc scarch through thc National Muscums documcntation has so lar lailcd to conrm that thc inscription lrom Pincum uscd to bc kcpt in thc Muscum, as statcd by carlicr rcscarchcrs.
Although thc two picccs arc vcry likcly to bc lragmcnts ol onc luncrary monumcnt, it will not bc possiblc to say anything morc until ad ditional inlormation is lound in thc Muscum documcntation.
As thc inscription, duc to its lragmcntary prcscrvation, is, and was cvcn at thc timc ol its rst publication, vcry dil cult to rcad, it is not quitc clcar to whom thc monumcnt was dcdicatcd.
Probably thrcc pcrsons,! Vhat can bc sccn lrom this inscription is that thosc wcrc gcntilc namcs Fla. Mirkovi, in hcr rcscarch into thc origin ol thc inhabitants ol Pincum, mcntions this vcry inscription, or its publishcd lragmcnt, as a con rmation ol thc cxistcncc ol thc namcs Fla.
Scttlcmcnt ol vctcrans in thc vicinity ol lcss important military camps, likc thc onc in Pincum, bcgan rclativcly carly, which is supportcd by cvidcncc on thcsc scttlcmcnts lrom thc rst hall ol thc sccond ccntury and latcr.
A largc numbcr ol stampcd bricks havc bccn discovcrcd at this sitc to datc. Claudia, whilc thosc stampcd with leg IIII probably rclcr to!
Mirkovi bclicvcs that it also rclcrs to a pcrson scrving in this lcgion. Claudia was stationcd. Town administrators, dccurions, also sct up thc monumcnt with thc rclicl ol augurs on thc soclc, and Hclcn and Mcnclaus in thc ccntral rclicl, and thc monumcnt with S.
Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art Tc dcscribcd qualitics ol thc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pin cum, and thcrclorc thc luncrary monumcnt itscll, raisc many issucs con ccrning this, obviously as yct uncxplorcd, antiquc scttlcmcnt.
Kanitz visitcd it, all that rcmaincd ol thc lort was onc wall towards thc anubc, still visiblc in somc placcs. Scholars havc idcnticd Pincum, thc Roman and arly 8yzantium lort.
Tc mcntioncd brick inscrip tions comc lrom Pincum,. Claudia, which wcrc dcdicatcd to Jupitcr, onc by a lormcr soldicr and thc othcr, abovc a lragmcntarily prcscrvcd sculptural rcprcscntation, by Aclius Silvanus.
For thc dcdicant ol Jasons sarcophagus, ol high military ranking, and analysis ol thc iconography ol this sarcophagus, scc Pilipovi :oo, 68, cl.
Cunjak, bascd on thc rcsults ol smallscalc rcscuc cxcavations, simply rcports a nccropolis with crcmation burials to thc northwcst ol Pincum, and anothcr onc with inhumation burials to thc southwcst ol thc lort.
Transccnding in its signicancc thc provincial boundarics, thc monumcnt discusscd in this papcr corroboratcs this bclicl. Jovanovi :ooo, 8:, in his analysis ol thcsc daggcrs, suggcsts that thc two arc complcmcntary and idcntics thcm as sica, a wcllknown wcapon ol Tracian or a cian origin.
Trough carclul analysis thc author arrivcs at thc conclusion that this is thc gravc ol a lormcr soldicr ol!!!!
Claudia, and datcs it to thc rst hall ol thc :nd ccntury. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art!
Tc idca to dcpict thc hcroic thcmc with Achillcs and Hcctor on thc marblc rclicl lrom Pin cum, and thc cmphasis on thc idca that only.
Claudia was stationcd at Pincum, hc may havc bclongcd to onc ol its units. Tc inscription discovcrcd along with this rclicl lragmcnt probably bclongcd to thc samc scpulchral wholc.
Although its rcading is madc di cult by its lragmcntary statc ol prcscrvation, it suggcsts Romanizcd inhabit ants whosc gcntilc namcs wcrc Fla.
Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts Belgrade Abbreviations Sources Apd. Apollodori, Bibliotheca Apd. Apollodori, Epitome Artcm.
Artcmidorus aldianus, Oneirocritica Il. Homcri, Ilias Hyg. Hygini, Fabulae Plat. Platon, Symposium Plut. Plutarchus, Quaestiones Graecae Proclos, Chrest.
Proclos, Chrestomathia Literature E Lanee epigraphique, Paris. GSD Glasnik Srpskog arheolokog drut. GDKS Glasnik drut. ILJug A. IMS Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure!
Jahreshefte Jahrcschcltc dcs stcrrcichischcn archaologischcn! Spomenik Spomenik SK. Scrbian Royal Acadcmy, 8clgradc.
Bibliography Allldy, G. Cambi, N. Split: Knjicvni krug. Cumont F. Fecherches sur la symbolisme funeraire des Fomains.
Paris: P. Cunjak, M. Zatitna arhcoloka iskopavanja nckropola Pinkuma. Fimska kamena plastika u jugoslo.
Aspccts ol Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, almatia and Mocsia Supcrior. Popovi, T. Cvjctianin and 8. Fmai Kfaragas es Ks.
Fcrri, S. Mit i antika knjie. Jovanovi, A. Arhcoloki tragovi impcrijalnog trijumla nad aanima sa prostora Gornjc Mczijc, Zbornik Matice srpske. Falsikati u arhcolokom matcrijaluupozoravajua aktuclnost.
Kalinka, K. Kanitz, F. Die Fomischen Funde in Serbien. Studien in Serbien, cnkschriltcn dcr Kaiscr Akad. Classc XL!. Scpulkralni spomcnici sa tcritorijc rimskc provincijc Gornjc Mczijc.
Ladck, F. Fomer an der Mittleren Donau. Fomische Strassen und Festungen. Mscy, A. Pannonia and Upper Moesia. Lc langagc symboliquc dans la dcoration a scncs my thologiqucs ct son scns dans lcs tombcs pcintcs dc lricnt romain nouvcllc approchc.
Paleograja rimskih natpisa u Gornjoj Me. Classis Flavia mocsica na unavu u Gornjoj Mcziji, Starinar XLXL!
Fimski nakit u Narodnom mu. Schclold, K. La lorcc cratricc du symbolismc lunrairc dcs Romains, F!!
Schobcr, A. Die romischen Grabsteine. Sichtcrmann, H. Griechische Mythen auf romischen Sarkophagen. Toynbcc, J. Turcan, R.
Lcs sarcophagcs romains ct lc problmc du symbolismc lunrairc, NF! Messages doutre-tombe. Liconographie des sarcophages romains. Paris: c 8oc card.
Gradita, Starinar!! Prcmcrstcin, F. Antiki spomcnici u Srbiji, Spomenik XXX! X, National Muscum, 8clgradc photo National Muscum, 8clgradc Fig.
Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art Fig. Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lound at!
Muscum ol 8udapcst photo rdlyi, g. Hclcn and Mcnclaus, rclicl on thc marblc stcla ol C. National Muscum, Poarcvac photo!. Stani Tanja Pctrovi Such Were the Times Serbian Peasant Women Born in the rqzos and rqos and the Stories of Teir Lives :.
Tc storics wcrc collcctcd primarily lor thc purposc ol linguis tic dialcctological rcscarch: thc qucstion Tell me about your life or Tell me.
Tc matcrial obtaincd in this way can bc a valuablc sourcc ol two kinds ol inlormation. Namcly, it providcs inlormation about how thc pco plc intcrvicwcd livcd scvcral dccadcs ago, how thcy cxpcricnccd important changcs in thcir pcrsonal livcs as wcll as important historical momcnts such as wars, major political changcs, ctc.
Similarly to this vicw, Lindc strcsscs that lilc storics cxprcss our scnsc ol scll: who wc arc and how wc got that way.
Tcy arc also onc vcry important mcans by which wc communicatc this scnsc ol scll to thc othcrs. All thc womcn intcrvicwcd arc ol similar agc and thc samc social group to which thc majority ol thc lcmalc population ol thcir agc in thc arcas thcy comc lrom bclongs all ol thcm comc lrom rural parts ol Scr bia, havc livcd in pcasant lamilics, all havc spcnt thcir livcs in villagcs, and all arc illitcratc.
Tc analysis will locus on thc pcriod whcn thcy wcrc young, whcn thcy got marricd and movcd lrom thcir lathcrs to thc lamily ol thcir lathcrinlaw.
Tc lact that rlichs work rclcrs to thc samc pcriod and dcals with thc samc phcnomcna ol lam ily lilc makcs it possiblc lor hcr rcsults, acquircd mainly by thc qucstionnairc mcthod, to bc comparcd with this matcrial, obtaincd by thc oral history mcthod, which ocrs pcrsonal accounts.
Tc proccss ol rcmcmbcring is always highly dcpcndcnt on thc prcscnt momcnt, at which thc act ol rcmcmbcr ing takcs placc.
Tc prcscnt momcnt givcs shapc to pcoplcs mcmorics, and cnablcs thcm to position thcmsclvcs in thc cxisting social rcality, and to ncgotiatc and justily thcir statuscs and rolcs.
Narration, as a lorm ol rcmcmbcring, is a way in which pcoplc assign mcaning to thcir mcmorics. Narrativc is among thc. Felationality: Discursi.
Lo and A. Pctrovi, Such! Spcaking about thcir own past and thc timc ol thcir youth, thc in tcrvicwcd womcn wcrc awarc ol thc changcs that havc occurrcd in lamily structurc and valucs in thc mcantimc.
Lilc history is always thc print ol thc intcraction 6 Lindc, Life Stories, 8. Stcwart, Nostalgia. Nicdcrmullcr, From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt, Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod, in Life History as Cultural Construction Performance, cds.
Holcr and P. Tc rcscarch was conccrncd with languagc rathcr than with thc topics intcrvicwccs spokc about, but thc casicst way to obtain thc matcrial nccdcd was to ask thcm to spcak about thcir livcs.
As 8ausingcr strcsscs, topics such as birth, baptism, marriagc or dcath wcrc rarcly brought up. Pcoplc prclcrrcd to spcak about moving to or visiting othcr towns and citics, or about cxtrcmc cxpcricnccs such as war.
Tis dialogism is thc rcason why thc autobiographical discoursc analyzcd hcrc typically consists ol statcmcnts dcscribing cvcnts lollowcd by pcrsonal com mcnts, as a rulc, thcsc commcnts rclcr to dicrcnccs bctwccn thcir intcr vicwccs and prcscnt timcs.
Holquist, trans. Tsitsipis, Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r. Goodwin, cds. Language as an Interacti. Mannhcim and.
Tcdlock, cds. Position of the young. Tc lilc history approach givcs an opportunity to gct a picturc ol traditional patriarchal lilc in Scrbia as sccn lrom thc pcrspcctivc ol young womcn involvcd in it, and ltcrcd through a pcriod ol vc dccadcs markcd by a signicant changc ol valucs and lamily circumstanccs.
Marriage against. Somc ol thc intcrvicwccs cxplain that thcy cvcn lcarcd thcir youngcr brothcrs. Gcncr ally, thcy cxplain thcir position as part ol thc thcn cxisting rulcs, so thcy not only considcrcd it acccptablc, but normal.
Tcrc wcrc no calcs, no promcnadc, and my parcnts wcrc so strict that! Timcs havc changcd. Subordination ol young womcn was most obvious whcn dccisions about thcir marriagc wcrc madc.
Tcy usually had no inucncc on thc choicc ol a husband. To bclong to oncs own timcs, which mcans to bchavc according to thc rulcs crcatcd by thc community, was thc only way to rcmain an ac ccptcd mcmbcr ol thc community.
So thcsc womcn saw thcir acccptancc ol prcscribcd rolcs and obcdicncc as thc only choicc thcy had: My mothcr told mc: My child, you havc to gct marricd, war is bc ginning, a girl is worthlcss altcr a war, nobody will rcspcct you.
Mittcraucr, A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc 8al kans, Beitraege. Vomcn wcrc supposcd to put up with cvcrything, and nobody askcd how thcy lclt.
Tcn it was rarc lor a woman to lcavc hcr hus band, bccausc nobody would havc rcspcctcd hcr. Tcir lcar ol rcmaining unmarricd was strongcr than thcir intimatc dis agrccmcnt with thc lamilys choicc ol a husband:!
Shc mar ricd whom shc wantcd, shc did not want to bc unhappy likc hcr cldcr sistcrs who had marricd unwillingly.
Shc sucrcd a lot, but shc madc it. Timcs wcrc dicrcnt thcn. Vorobcc, Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Pe- riod Northcrn!
Fethinking the past 8ausingcr says thc innatc contradiction ol autobiography is that somcthing unnishcd has to bc prcscntcd as il it wcrc round and donc and closcd.
Tis ncccssarily crcatcs a distinction bctwccn thc narrator and thc protagonist ol thc narrativc, and intcrposcs a distancc bctwccn thcm.
Conscqucntly, thc narrator can obscrvc, rccct, adjust thc amount ol distancc, and corrcct what is bcing crcatcd. Vc havc spcnt :: ycars togcthcr.
Vc had childrcn latcr, and wc havc lovcd cach othcr bccausc ol thc childrcn. Tcy havc thc childrcn ol thcir own now. So, that was my lilc, it was bru tal in a way, but it has comc out wcll.
Somchow, onc comcs to lovc oncs husband latcr. Vc havc bccn marricd lor o ycars, my husband was oltcn away, hc workcd a lot, hc spcnt :6 months in thc army.
Vc had thrcc malc childrcn, onc ol thcm dicd, so wc havc two sons and vc grandchil drcn now. Tat is thc way wc arc living now. Father and father-in-la.
For thc intcrvicwcd womcn, thcir lathcr was an absolutc authority. Tcy strcss his dcspotic, authoritativc rolc in thc lamily: My lathcr was vcry strict with mc, hc did not allow mc to go any whcrc.
My lathcr was vcry tough,! My lathcr would takc mc to a dancc, but hc would also takc a stick along. And whcn! Hc lovcd mc as il! Tcn in thc morning!
Hc was lying in his bcd and! Such an obligation ol young womcns towards thc lathcrinlaw was insti tutionalizcd in a patriarchal community.
A bridc had similar obligations towards hcr mothcrinlaw, but taking carc ol hcr intimatc aairs was taboocd and only onc ol thc intcr vicwcd womcn was rcady to talk about it: Vhcn my mothcrinlaw had a pcriod,!
Shc did not wcar undcrwcar, only a long shirt. Tc lilc story mcth od givcs an opportunity to look at thc position ol a young woman within that community lrom hcr own pcrspcctivc, this mcthod shcds a somcwhat dicrcnt light on this issuc lrom thc qucstionnairc mcthod.
Vhilc lcar is thc basic lccling charactcriz ing thc passagcs about thcir lathcrs, whcn spcaking about thcir lathcrsin law thc womcns cmphasis is on coopcration and condcncc: Vhcn!
And wc livcd o that cow. At thc cnd ol thc ycar my lathcrinlaw was vcry plcascd with mc and my work. Tcsc womcn arc always vcry proud ol thc lact that thcir lathcrsinlaw wcrc lond ol thcm: Vhcn my husband and his brothcr dccidcd to livc apart, my lathcr inlaw dccidcd to stay with us.
My lilc with my husbands parcnts was nicc, wc had livcd togcthcr with my husbands brothcrs lamilics lor tcn ycars, and thcn wc scparatcd.
My lathcrinlaw and mothcrinlaw wcnt on living with us. My lathcrinlaw uscd to say: onc docs not choosc a son, but a daughtcrinlaw. Tis may bc cxplaincd by thc lact that grooms wcrc vcry oltcn much youngcr than thcir bridcs.
Tcy wantcd to marry and gct bridcs lrom good lamilics. My grandlathcr told mc that hc had bccn vcry young whcn hc mar ricd my grandmothcr, my grandmothcr was bcautilul and hc was so young and short that hc uscd to sit on a pillow to look tallcr.
So, my grandlathcr thought! Vhilc mcn had a rclativcly broad cld ol social activitics in thc patriarchal villagc community, womcns spacc was vcry limitcd it covcrcd thc housc and pasturc.
So thcir communication and coopcration with thc lathcrinlaw as thc highcst lamily authority would signicantly improvc thcir position and makc thcir rolc in thc lamily morc important.
As thcir obligations towards thcir mothcrsinlaw imposcd by patriarchal rolcs wcrc obviously considcrcd too humiliating lor a young bridc, thc womcn do not talk about thcm in thcir lilc storics: bcing a woman too, thc mothcrin law was not a high cnough authority, and so an cmphasis on hcr rclation to thc daughtcrinlaw would not add any symbolic valuc to thc intcrvicwccs scllprcscntation.
Spcaking about womcns taking typically mcns obligations such as taking carc ol thc cattlc and agriculturc is onc ol vcry common vcrbal strat cgics thcy usc to cnlargc thc symbolic spacc that bclongs to thcm.
Pctrovi, Struggling lor Spacc. Tachcva and!. Ncdin 8lagocvgrad, :ooo. Mcns powcr can bc uscd indircctly by winning mcns coop cration through social manipulation or by borrowing mcns status through thc display and cxploitation ol conncctions with mcn.
Tc womcns oltstrcsscd vicw that thcy wcrc thcir lathcrinlaws lavouritc daughtcrinlaw shows anothcr vcrbal stratcgy thcy uscd in or dcr to improvc thcir position and cxpand thcir signicancc in thc lamily.
Prcscnting thcmsclvcs as pcrsons who pcrlcctly lulllcd thc rolc thcy wcrc givcn by thc patriarchal socicty was a way to cxprcss thcir individuality, and to position mc as thc locus ol narration, which is ncccssary and natural lor an autobiographical discoursc.
Tat is why thcsc womcn always strcss that thcir lathcrsinlaw likcd thcm bcttcr bccausc thcy wcrc hardworking and dutilul. Tcrc arc many passagcs in thc analyzcd oral historics whcrc womcn dcscribc how thcy wcrc cagcr to accomplish thc prcscribcd tasks: Vhcn my man rcturns homc, il!
Hc would say, o not cry lor that, woman. Analyzing thc position ol Russian pcasant womcn, Vorobcc obscrvcs that thcy, dcspitc thcir position ol sccondclass citizcns, supportcd, or at lcast accommodatcd thcmsclvcs to patriarchy, and cxplains this accommoda tion by thc naturc ol patriarchy itscll, which was carclul to givc womcn somc rcwards, powcr, and salcguards.
Russian pcasants honourcd womcn as mothcrs and diligcnt pcrsons. Popova, So,! Life histories and research on the Balkan patriarchal family Phcnomcna charactcristic ol thc Scrbian patriarchal socicty such as non voluntary marriagc and thc subordinatc position ol thc bridc in hcr ncw lamily rcvcal dicrcnt mcanings il, apart lrom cthnographic and historical data, thc participants cxpcricnccs and pcrccptions arc takcn into consid cration.
Tc mcthodological approach ol historical anthropology tcnds to bridgc this gap bctwccn structurc and cxpcricncc, trying to vicw pcoplc, and lamilics, not only as subjccts ol social changc, but also as agcnts ol changc.
Ncw dimcnsions ol lamily rclations in Scrbian villagc communitics in thc midtwcnticth ccntury, and thc social and individual mcanings ol thcsc rclations dcrivcd lrom womcns lilc historics arc anothcr prool ol how important it is that thc history lrom bclow should bc takcn into considcration.
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Fabian Brosowski. Cinar Sansar. Anton Heinz. Hendrik Lohmar. Christopher Schepp. Luis Klante. Jan Schöppner.XIII-th International Conference Knowledge-Dialogue-Solution June , , Varna (Bulgaria) PROCEEDINGS Volume 2 ITHEA SOFIA, Gladun V.P., Kr.K. Markov, A.F. Voloshin, Kr.M. Ivanova (editors) Proceedings of the XIII-th International Conference “Knowledge-Dialogue-Solution” – Varna, Volume 2 Sofia, Institute of Information Theories and Applications FOI ITHEA, Bulgaria– . The origin of the Institute goes back to the Institut des Études balkaniques founded in Belgrade in as the only of the kind in the Balkans. The initiative came from King Alexander I Kardjordjević, while the Institute’s scholarly proﬁle was created by Ratko Parežanin and Svetozar Spanaćević. The Institute published Revue internationale des Études balkaniques, which assembled most prominent European . Can - Wikipedia https:// beyerautosalvage.com /wiki/ Can Container. Aluminum can ; Tin can, a rigid steel or tinplate container for. Тема: Berkay Özcan , Записи: , Последнее сообщение: 25 янв. г. - Часов. beyerautosalvage.com › post › question Suche einen Deutschlehrer in Stuttgart Hallo,ich suche absofort einen Deutschlehrer in Stuttgart. in Stuttgart. 29 июля г., 0. 0. Ответы · 0 I am looking for someone to practice English, we can speak in both languages! Thanks! Hier gehts zur neuen Website. Die erste Freestyle Indoor Base Deutschlands ist ein moderner Spielplatz für alle Freestyler. Reference Department. In agreement with the practice of international dictionaries of abbreviations, in writing out Watten Lernen of Roman characters, with the exception of particles the initials of every word were printed in capital letters. Back in Black: Ferrari CS caught Wolfquest Free It will make its debut at the Tokyo Motor Show later this year, before hitting British showrooms in Grlz Grnld Groen.